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CODE OF ETHICS

Plagiarism means the deliberate or unknowingly use or appropriation of an idea or thought without giving appropriate credit and attribution of source. The meaning of ‘plagiarism’ in Turkish may be defined as ‘some kind of an academic corruption [1].

Common forms of plagiarism are summarized below [1,2,3].

♦ using exactly the same sentences with the source;

♦ making others write an article, either against money or for free;

♦ using others’ ideas and relying heavily on such ideas without citing or wrongfully citing. As mentioned in our Institute’s Thesis Manual, sources should be edited in AMA/JAMA style. The said Thesis Manual also includes examples for such edits.

♦ not citing to your own work. Even if you use an article that has been previously written by your party as a source, you should cite that source.
♦ Copying from another source, either deliberately or without knowing.
♦ Using inaccurate information with no certain sources found on the internet like your own idea.
Examples of plagiarism:
Original text
Numerous studies are conducted to increase efficiency to keep the world’s cotton production at levels sufficient to meet needs. In addition to traditional improvement methods to obtain species resistant to draught, various diseases and pests, transgenic studies based on in-vitro multiplication techniques are also increasingly gaining importance [4].
Plagiarism with sentences taken from the source:
Numerous studies are conducted to increase efficiency to keep the world’s cotton production at levels sufficient to meet needs. In addition to traditional improvement methods to obtain species resistant to various diseases, pests and draught, transgenic studies based on in-vitro multiplication techniques are also increasingly gaining importance [4].
Plagiarism with small passages melded together:
Transgenic studies based on in-vitro multiplication techniques are increasingly gaining importance in addition to traditional improvement methods. Numerous studies are conducted about increasing efficiency for the world’s cotton production to be kept levels sufficient to meet needs.
Replacing only one or two words within a passage and rewriting them as your own sentences is plagiarism. The correct use would be summarizing what is understood from a passage or quoting exact sentences and providing the source of reference.

Precautions against plagiarism [1,2,3]:
♦ “Before starting to write an article and during the research at preparation stage, marking others’ ideas while noting their ideas or opinions”. It is also possible to note those passages you wish to cite by using a number of .pdf reader programs (such as adobe reader, nuance etc.) for non-printed materials.
♦ Using our own sentences independently from the original source during writing and then benchmarking with the original source. “Quoting those sentences which cannot be changed or which we wish to keep as-is”.
♦ Instead of directly citing a passage, rewriting the meaning of that passage indirectly. Information provided by a source needs to be critically reviewed and the correlation between such information should be expressed in our own words.

♦ Preventing unknowingly plagiarism by using anti-plagiarism programs such as iThenticate, Turnitin, SafeAssignment, Docol©c, Urkund, Copycatch, WCopyfind, Eve2 (Essay Verification Engine), GPSP – Glatt Plagiarism Screening Program, MOSS – a Measure of Software Similarity and Jplag. The most popular software are WCopyfind and Turnitin. Turnitin is a paid software although it is web-based. The user first needs to register to the system and create a profile. The program is used in more than 50 countries and can scan more than 5 billion pages, thousands of books and assignments and produce a comparison report [3].

Turnitin program can be used with a user account provided by the Head of Library and Documentation, Ankara University while iThenticate program can be used freely after logging in with an e-mail address with an extension of ankara.edu.tr via TÜBİTAK Ulakbim.

The following points need to be taken into account to notice plagiarism [1,2,3]:
♦ Plagiarism is generally based upon “cut-paste” method. Therefore, tense shifts between sentences (has done, did), differences in fonts (Calibri, Times New Roman) and use of different methods in sources (AMA/JAMA) help noticing plagiarism.
♦ Another important identifier of plagiarism is the use of obsolete sources. An article should rather refer to recent studies. However, if an article is mainly based on obsolete sources, it has been probably cited from a review paper and plagiarism is more frequently noticed.

Recommendations for Faculty Members [1,2,3]:
♦ Thesis papers, seminars and assignments delivered by students should not only be checked for contents and wording but also for any mistakes in citation and references (if necessary, by scanning these papers through various search engines and anti-plagiarism programs).

♦ “It is found that in particular foreign students see no harm in copying others’ materials and fail to understand the rules of reference and the difference between understanding and interpreting a text and copying it [2].” According to the same source, the basis of that issue is the fact that plagiarism is deemed as acceptable except for Western Countries. Therefore, a reasonable effort should be made to raise the awareness in publication ethics for foreign students.
Many different applications have been developed in numerous countries to prevent plagiarism. “Science and Ethics Committee” was founded in China in 2007. In Pakistan, academicians, who are blamed for plagiarism, are deprived of monetary aids while in US, graduate students sign an agreement for scientific ethics including no-plagiarism. In our country, “Research and Publication Ethics Committee” was established under the body of TUBITAK [3]. Even though all these cases fall short to prevent plagiarism as a whole, they help raising awareness to a large extent. Our government has also introduced legal sanctions to increase deterrence for plagiarism. Draft law adopted on 07.11.2017 by the Justice Commission of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) stipulates that “any person, who names a work owned by another as himself shall be sentenced to imprisonment from 6 months up to 2 years or shall be imposed punitive fine” [3].
“Many students at higher education degree have issues in respect of what the research stages are, where and how to research the sources related to their research topic, how to digest an information selected from sources accessed and how to report and submit the same and how to indicate sources” [2]. These habits need to be adopted in the early years of education to prevent ethical violations from increasing. Therefore, lessons like “Ethics, Research Methodology, Preparation Techniques for Project and Scientific Publications” given by our Institute help avoiding this issue so that the students are aimed to be informed about scientific publication ethics.
The principles that Biotechnology Institute stands behind as to plagiarism are inarguably the universal publication ethics criteria. Accordingly, fundamental universal sources are available at the links below as guidelines for our students:

HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS CODE OF CONDUCTS
COUNCIL OF HIGHER EDUCATION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ETHICS DIRECTIVE
Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
Vancouver Protocol
If you wish to create an account for iThenticate and Turnitin please visit: http://kutuphane.ankara.edu.tr/?slider=ithenticate-akademik-intihal-engelleme-programi
http://kutuphane.ankara.edu.tr/?slider=turnitin-intihali-engelleme-programi
Sources
1) Serengil Y., İntihal, Üniversite ve Toplum, Mart 2006, Cilt 6, Sayı 1. Erişim tarihi: 11.11.2015. http://www.universite-toplum.org/text.php3?id=264
2) Uçak N. Ö., Öğrencilerin İntihal Algısı, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Bilgi ve Belge Yönetimi Bölümü, s:173-181. Erişim tarihi: 11.11.2015.
http://www.bby.hacettepe.edu.tr/yayinlar/dosyalar/U%C3%A7ak.pdf
3) Uçak N. Ö., Birinci H. G., Bilimsel etik ve intihal, 2008, Türk Kütüphaneciliği 22,2. 187-204. Erişim tarihi: 11.11.2015. https://biotek.ankara.edu.tr/files/2070-4099-1-PB.pdf
4) Yalçın G., Farklı Pamuk Çeşitlerinde In Vıtro Sürgün Rejenerasyonu, 2013, Ankara Üniversitesi Biyoteknoloji Enstitüsü Temel Biyoteknoloji A.B.D. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara.